Which commonly used CNC lathe fault diagnosis method

CNC machine tools are high-precision, high-flexibility and high-efficiency automatic machine tools. Since their investment is much higher than that of ordinary machine tools, reducing the failure rate of CNC machine tools and shortening the time to repair faults is very important for improving the utilization rate of machine tools. significance. Titanium-based machinery is based on the top of the rotary, screw, shaft machining, CNC lathe processing, shank holder, chuck holder for the company's flagship product! At present, the fault diagnosis of CNC machine tools has always been a difficult problem for operators and maintenance personnel. Since the safety and reliability of the CNC machine tool will have a direct impact on the efficiency of the production unit, it is very important to diagnose the faults of the CNC machine tool in a timely manner.

Which commonly used CNC lathe fault diagnosis method

After the failure of the CNC lathe, we must analyze both the host and the electrical. We must first determine whether it is a host fault or an electrical fault. Then we need to analyze and inspect it in detail to find the fault point and finally eliminate it.

First, the diagnosis of host failure

For common host failures, there are many diagnostic methods, such as "modern diagnostic techniques" and traditional "practical diagnostic techniques" using advanced testing methods.

1, practical diagnostic technology

This diagnosis is performed by maintenance personnel through their own sensory organs and experience to diagnose faults in CNC machine tools. The diagnostic process using practical diagnostic techniques varies according to the type of failure. There are no sequential methods for each method, which can be interspersed or performed at the same time. A comprehensive analysis should be conducted to obtain better results. Practical diagnostic technology does not require complicated and expensive instruments, and can be diagnosed anywhere and anytime. It is fast, convenient, and accurate. It is especially suitable for initial diagnosis of machine tools.

2, modern diagnostic technology

This diagnosis uses diagnostic instruments and data processing to measure certain characteristic parameters of the machine tool such as vibration, noise and temperature, and compares the measured values ​​with the specified normal values ​​to judge whether the working status of the mechanical device is normal or not. Thus, the prediction and prediction of the operating status of the mechanical device can be performed; the cause, location, and severity of the failure of the mechanical device can be further analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The use of modern diagnostic technology can detect the location of the fault in the early stages of the mechanical device failure and perform maintenance to prevent further damage to the mechanical parts. Modern diagnostic technology has now been continuously promoted and applied.

Second, the diagnosis of electrical system faults

For the faults of the electrical system of CNC lathes, the process of investigation, analysis and diagnosis of faults is also the troubleshooting process. Therefore, the method of fault diagnosis is particularly important. Here are some common diagnostic methods.

1, intuitive method. The main use of visual inspection, hand touch, power and other methods.

The first method used by maintenance personnel in troubleshooting is visual inspection.

First of all, to consult, to the fault site personnel in detail consult the fault after the failure, the phenomenon of failure and the consequences of the failure, but also in the entire analysis, the decision process repeatedly asked;

The second is to inspect carefully and step by step from the outside to the inside according to the principle of fault diagnosis. Check whether the electronic control devices (such as lubrication device, numerical control system, temperature control device, etc.) of the machine tool have alarm indications, and whether the working status of each part is in normal status (such as robot position, spindle status, position of each coordinate axis, tool magazine, etc.) The machine tool must observe whether there are short circuits and open circuits on the circuit board, whether the circuit board components and lines have cracks, burns, etc., whether the chip is in poor contact or not, and whether the circuit board has been repaired must be checked for missing parts or faults. Parts and disconnections;

The third is touching. Under the condition of power failure of the whole machine, you can touch the installation status of each major circuit board, the plugging status of each plug connector, and the connection status of each power and signal conductor (such as servo and motor contactor wiring). Discover the cause of the failure.

2, self-diagnosis function method. Using the self-diagnosis function of the CNC system, alarm information is given to indicate the general cause of the fault.

3, exchange method. The same modules and units are exchanged with each other to observe the situation of the failover and quickly determine the location of the failure.

4, instrument measurement and comparison method. After a system failure occurs, a conventional electrician testing instrument is used to measure the fault voltage, power supply, and pulse signals. When the normal value is compared with the fault value, the cause and location of the fault can be analyzed.

The instrument inspection method is to use a conventional electrical instrument to measure the relevant DC and pulse signals and the AC/DC power supply voltages of each group to find possible faults. For example: take the multimeter to check each power situation, and measure the relevant signal status monitoring points arranged on some of the circuit boards. Take the oscilloscope to observe the amplitude and phase of the pulsation signal or whether there is or not, take the PLC programmer to detect the PLC program. The point of failure and reason.

5, tapping method. The CNC system is composed of various circuit boards. There are many solder joints on each circuit board. Any soldering or poor contact may cause failure. If there is a fault, the insulator can be used to lightly strike the suspected solder joints with poor soldering or poor contact. The fault is likely to be in the area of ​​the strike.

The above methods are used at the same time to perform comprehensive analysis of faults, which can quickly diagnose the location of faults, so that faults can be quickly eliminated.

Third, the principle of fault diagnosis

Fault diagnosis is a very important stage for troubleshooting CNC lathes. The following principles should be followed when making a fault diagnosis.

1, first outside the interior

The failure rate of modern CNC machine tools has become lower and lower, and most of the failures are caused by the non-system itself. Maintenance personnel should check each one from the outside to the inside, try to avoid opening and disassembling at will, otherwise it will enlarge the fault and make the machine tool lose its precision and reduce its performance.

2, first after the host electrical

In general, host failures are relatively easy to detect, and it is difficult to diagnose numerical control systems and electrical faults. From practical experience, a large part of the breakdown of CNC machine tools is caused by the failure of the host machine. Therefore, before troubleshooting, first of all, we should take care to eliminate mechanical failures. This can often achieve a multiplier effect.

3, first static after the dynamic

In the stationary state where the lathe is de-energized, electricity can be energized to the lathe by knowing, observing, testing, analyzing, and confirming that the energization will not result in an extension of the fault or an accident. In the operating state, dynamic observation, inspection and testing are performed to find faults. However, after a destructive failure may occur after power-on, the danger must be removed before power is applied.

4, first simple and complicated

When multiple types of failures are intertwined, easy problems should be solved first, and then problems that are more difficult to solve should be resolved. After simple problems are solved, difficult problems may also become easy.

5, first general after special

When troubleshooting a failure, consider the most common possible causes first, then analyze the rare causes.

In addition equipment maintenance personnel must have certain professional qualities. For a specific maintenance object, the maintenance personnel must firstly decompose and master the working principle of each part of the system and the mechanical structure of the lathe; secondly, understand the operation method and sequence of the equipment; and finally, comprehensively analyze and conduct various factors that may cause failure. Actual inspection and maintenance. After each maintenance, a detailed equipment file should be established to record the time and phenomenon of fault occurrence, as well as fault analysis, diagnostic methods, and troubleshooting methods. If there are any remaining problems, detailed records should also be recorded so that not only each fault can be resolved. According to investigation, but also can accumulate maintenance experience, lay the foundation for future fault repair.

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